Autophagy

Autophagy is the regulated, self-degradative process of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components. The lysosomal pathway is evolutionarily conserved and initiates engulfment, degradation and recycling of cellular contents including long-lived proteins and organelles thus promoting cell survival. Autophagy is induced by conditions of nutrient deprivation as well as physiological and pathological processes such as development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, stress, infection, obesity, and cancer.

Three major forms of autophagy are commonly described: Macroautophagy, Microautophagy, and mitophagy, along with chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Macroautophagy is the primary pathway and initiates isolation of cytoplasmic targets via a double-membraned vesicle - the autophagosome. The autophagosome then travels through the cytoplasm of the cell to a lysosome, and the two organelles fuse. Within the newbuilt autolysosome, the contents of the autophagosome are degraded via acidic lysosomal hydrolases.

Macroautophagy is executed by more than 30 autophagy-related (Atg) genes. In mammals, amino acids, growth factors and ROS regulate the activity of protein kinases mTOR and AMPK. These two are crucial for autophagy regulation through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2. ULK is part of a protein complex containing Atg13, Atg101 and FIP200 and phosphorylates and activates Beclin-1. The active ULK and Beclin-1 complexes re-localize to the site of autophagosome initiation, the phagophore, where they both contribute to the activation of downstream autophagy components. The class III PI(3) kinase complex mediates the nucleation of autophagosomes. VPS34 phosphorylates the lipid phosphatidylinositol and generates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) on the surface of the phagophore. Downstream of PtdIns3P production, WIPI2B links PtdIns(3)P to LC3 lipidation through ATG12–ATG5-ATG16L1 (E3-like) complex. The two ubiquitin-like proteins of ATG8 and ATG12 induce the elongation and expansion of the phagophore membrane. Lipidated LC3 form of LC3, known as LC3-II, contributes to the closure of autophagosomes and enables the docking of specific cargos and adaptor proteins such as Sequestosome-1/p62. The completed autophagosome then fuses with the help of SNARE and UVRAG with a lysosome. The contents of the autolysosome are degraded and their basic modules are released from the vesicle through the action of permeases.

Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy. It is triggered by defective mitochondria following damage or oxidative stress. Mitophagy prevents cellular degeneration caused by accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. NIX and its regulator BNIP3 mediate mitophagy in mammals as well as PINK1 and parkin proteins. The occurrence of mitophagy is not limited to the damaged mitochondria but also involves undamaged ones.

Microautophagy, involves the direct engulfment of cytoplasmic material and organelles, such as the peroxisome and the nucleus into the lysosome. This occurs by invagination, meaning the inward folding of the lysosomal membrane, or cellular protrusion.

Chaperone-mediated autophagy differs from the other autophagic pathways as it does not involve vesicle formation but, rather, a direct translocation of a specific set of proteins across the lysosomal membrane. The cytosolic chaperone hsc70, plays a major role in target recognition and transport to the lysosom. Targeted proteins must have an amino acid sequence a with pentapeptide motif biochemically related to KFERQ in order to be bound by hsc70.

For more information, especially concerning the role of autophagy in diseases, visit our resource site.

Initiation

BECN1 - Beclin 1

Beclin-1 participates in the regulation of autophagy and has an important role in development, tumorigenesis, and neurodegeneration (Zhong et al., 2009 [PubMed 19270693]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010].   More...
Antigens in this category:
AKT1S1 - AKT1 Substrate 1 (Proline-Rich): AKT1S1 antibodies AKT1S1 ELISA Kits AKT1S1 Proteins
BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2): BCL2 antibodies BCL2 ELISA Kits BCL2 Proteins
MLST8 (MTOR Associated Protein, LST8 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): MLST8 antibodies MLST8 ELISA Kits MLST8 Proteins
ULK1 (Unc-51 Like Kinase 1 (C. Elegans)): ULK1 antibodies ULK1 ELISA Kits ULK1 Proteins

Elongation and Closure

E2F1 (E2F Transcription Factor 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a...   More...

PIK3C3 (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Class 3):

Antigens in this category:
ATG12 (Autophagy Related 12): ATG12 antibodies ATG12 ELISA Kits ATG12 Proteins
ATG13 (Autophagy Related 13): ATG13 antibodies ATG13 ELISA Kits ATG13 Proteins
CASC5 (Cancer Susceptibility Candidate 5): CASC5 antibodies CASC5 ELISA Kits  
COL3A1 (Collagen, Type III, alpha 1): COL3A1 antibodies COL3A1 ELISA Kits COL3A1 Proteins
FN1 - Fibronectin: FN1 antibodies FN1 ELISA Kits FN1 Proteins
GABARAP - GABA(A) Receptor-Associated Protein: GABARAP antibodies GABARAP ELISA Kits GABARAP Proteins
GABARAPL1 (GABA(A) Receptor-Associated Protein Like 1): GABARAPL1 antibodies GABARAPL1 ELISA Kits GABARAPL1 Proteins
GABARAPL2 - GABA(A) Receptor-Associated Protein-Like 2: GABARAPL2 antibodies GABARAPL2 ELISA Kits GABARAPL2 Proteins
GSN - Gelsolin: GSN antibodies GSN ELISA Kits GSN Proteins
LHCGR - Luteinizing Hormone/choriogonadotropin Receptor: LHCGR antibodies LHCGR ELISA Kits LHCGR Proteins
LAMP1 (Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1): LAMP1 antibodies LAMP1 ELISA Kits LAMP1 Proteins
LAMP2 (Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2): LAMP2 antibodies LAMP2 ELISA Kits LAMP2 Proteins
MAP1LC3A - Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 alpha: MAP1LC3A antibodies MAP1LC3A ELISA Kits MAP1LC3A Proteins
MAP1LC3B - Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 beta: MAP1LC3B antibodies MAP1LC3B ELISA Kits MAP1LC3B Proteins
MAP1LC3C (Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 gamma): MAP1LC3C antibodies   MAP1LC3C Proteins

Cargo and Adaptor Proteins

SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1):

This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that binds ubiquitin and regulates activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) signaling pathway. The protein functions as a scaffolding/adaptor protein in concert with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to mediate activation of NF-kB in response to upstream signals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding either the same or different...   More...
Antigens in this category:
ATG3 (ATG3 Autophagy Related 3 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): ATG3 antibodies ATG3 ELISA Kits ATG3 Proteins
ATG5 (ATG5 Autophagy Related 5 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): ATG5 antibodies ATG5 ELISA Kits ATG5 Proteins
ATG7 - ATG7 Autophagy Related 7 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae): ATG7 antibodies ATG7 ELISA Kits ATG7 Proteins
FKBP8 - FK506 Binding Protein 8, 38kDa: FKBP8 antibodies FKBP8 ELISA Kits FKBP8 Proteins
KHDRBS1 (KH Domain Containing, RNA Binding, Signal Transduction Associated 1): KHDRBS1 antibodies KHDRBS1 ELISA Kits KHDRBS1 Proteins
SLC39A1 - Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 1: SLC39A1 antibodies SLC39A1 ELISA Kits SLC39A1 Proteins
Slc39a2 - Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 2: Slc39a2 antibodies Slc39a2 ELISA Kits  
SLC39A3 (Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 3): SLC39A3 antibodies SLC39A3 ELISA Kits SLC39A3 Proteins
SLC39A4 - Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 4: SLC39A4 antibodies SLC39A4 ELISA Kits SLC39A4 Proteins

Lysosome Fusion and Degradation

GSTT2 (Glutathione S-Transferase theta 2):

Glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) theta 2 (GSTT2) is a member of a superfamily of proteins that catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione to a variety of electrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. Human GSTs can be divided into five main classes: Alpha, Mu, Pi, Theta, and Zeta. The theta class members GSTT1 and GSTT2 share 55% amino acid sequence identity and both are thought to have an...   More...
Antigens in this category:
CCL3 (Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 3): CCL3 antibodies CCL3 ELISA Kits CCL3 Proteins
CXCL1 - Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha): CXCL1 antibodies CXCL1 ELISA Kits CXCL1 Proteins
CXCL14 (Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 14): CXCL14 antibodies CXCL14 ELISA Kits CXCL14 Proteins
CXCL3 (Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 3): CXCL3 antibodies CXCL3 ELISA Kits CXCL3 Proteins
SH3GLB1 (SH3-Domain GRB2-Like Endophilin B1): SH3GLB1 antibodies SH3GLB1 ELISA Kits SH3GLB1 Proteins

Regulation

CD44 (CD44):

The protein encoded by this gene is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. It is a receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA) and can also interact with other ligands, such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This protein participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation...   More...

INS - Insulin

RAF1 (V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1):

Antigens in this category:
BMI1 (BMI1 Polycomb Ring Finger Oncogene): BMI1 antibodies BMI1 ELISA Kits BMI1 Proteins
CEBPB (CCAAT/enhancer Binding Protein (C/EBP), beta): CEBPB antibodies CEBPB ELISA Kits CEBPB Proteins
CDC25B (Cell Division Cycle 25 Homolog B (S. Pombe)): CDC25B antibodies CDC25B ELISA Kits CDC25B Proteins
COL1A1 (Collagen, Type I, alpha 1): COL1A1 antibodies COL1A1 ELISA Kits COL1A1 Proteins
COL3A1 (Collagen, Type III, alpha 1): COL3A1 antibodies COL3A1 ELISA Kits COL3A1 Proteins
CDKN1A (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)): CDKN1A antibodies CDKN1A ELISA Kits CDKN1A Proteins
CDKN1B (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1)): CDKN1B antibodies CDKN1B ELISA Kits CDKN1B Proteins
CDKN2A - Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (Melanoma, P16, Inhibits CDK4): CDKN2A antibodies    
GDNF (Glial Cell Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor): GDNF antibodies GDNF ELISA Kits GDNF Proteins
GSK3b - GSK3 beta: GSK3b antibodies GSK3b ELISA Kits  
HRAS (V-Ha-Ras Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog): HRAS antibodies HRAS ELISA Kits HRAS Proteins
HRAS1 - Harvey Rat Sarcoma Virus Oncogene 1: HRAS1 antibodies HRAS1 ELISA Kits HRAS1 Proteins
HMGA1 - High Mobility Group AT-Hook 1: HMGA1 antibodies HMGA1 ELISA Kits HMGA1 Proteins
INHBA (Inhibin, beta A): INHBA antibodies INHBA ELISA Kits INHBA Proteins
ING1 - Inhibitor of Growth Family, Member 1: ING1 antibodies ING1 ELISA Kits ING1 Proteins
ING2 (Inhibitor of Growth Family, Member 2): ING2 antibodies ING2 ELISA Kits ING2 Proteins
IGF1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1): IGF1 antibodies IGF1 ELISA Kits IGF1 Proteins
IGF1R (Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor): IGF1R antibodies IGF1R ELISA Kits IGF1R Proteins
IGFBP3 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3): IGFBP3 antibodies IGFBP3 ELISA Kits IGFBP3 Proteins
IGFBP5 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5): IGFBP5 antibodies IGFBP5 ELISA Kits IGFBP5 Proteins
JUN - C-JUN: JUN antibodies JUN ELISA Kits JUN Proteins
p38 (MAP kinase p38): p38 antibodies p38 ELISA Kits  
MMP14 (Matrix Metallopeptidase 14 (Membrane-inserted)): MMP14 antibodies MMP14 ELISA Kits MMP14 Proteins
MDM2 (Mdm2 P53 Binding Protein Homolog): MDM2 antibodies MDM2 ELISA Kits  
MDM2 (Mdm2 P53 Binding Protein Homolog (Mouse)):   MDM2 ELISA Kits  
MDM2 (Mdm2, p53 E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Homolog (Mouse)): MDM2 antibodies MDM2 ELISA Kits MDM2 Proteins
FRAP1 - MTOR: FRAP1 antibodies FRAP1 ELISA Kits FRAP1 Proteins
MAPK1 - ERK2: MAPK1 antibodies MAPK1 ELISA Kits MAPK1 Proteins
MAPK14 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14): MAPK14 antibodies MAPK14 ELISA Kits MAPK14 Proteins
MAP2K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1): MAP2K1 antibodies MAP2K1 ELISA Kits MAP2K1 Proteins
MAP2K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3): MAP2K3 antibodies MAP2K3 ELISA Kits MAP2K3 Proteins
PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog): PTEN antibodies    
SERPINB2 (Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2): SERPINB2 antibodies SERPINB2 ELISA Kits SERPINB2 Proteins
PLAT (Plasminogen Activator, Tissue): PLAT antibodies PLAT ELISA Kits PLAT Proteins
PLAU (Plasminogen Activator, Urokinase): PLAU antibodies PLAU ELISA Kits PLAU Proteins
PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen): PCNA antibodies PCNA ELISA Kits PCNA Proteins
RB1CC1 (RB1-Inducible Coiled-Coil 1): RB1CC1 antibodies RB1CC1 ELISA Kits  
RB1 - Retinoblastoma 1: RB1 antibodies RB1 ELISA Kits RB1 Proteins
SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, Cysteine-Rich (Osteonectin)): SPARC antibodies SPARC ELISA Kits SPARC Proteins
SERPINE1 (serpin Peptidase Inhibitor, Clade E (Nexin, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1), Member 1): SERPINE1 antibodies SERPINE1 ELISA Kits SERPINE1 Proteins
SMAD4 (SMAD Family Member 4): SMAD4 antibodies SMAD4 ELISA Kits SMAD4 Proteins
SMAD3 (SMAD, Mothers Against DPP Homolog 3): SMAD3 antibodies SMAD3 ELISA Kits SMAD3 Proteins
TEP1 (Telomerase-Associated Protein 1): TEP1 antibodies TEP1 ELISA Kits  
THBS1 - Thrombospondin 1: THBS1 antibodies THBS1 ELISA Kits THBS1 Proteins
TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor, beta 1): TGFB1 antibodies TGFB1 ELISA Kits TGFB1 Proteins
TNFSF15 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 15): TNFSF15 antibodies TNFSF15 ELISA Kits TNFSF15 Proteins
TP53 - p53: TP53 antibodies TP53 ELISA Kits TP53 Proteins
BRAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1): BRAF antibodies BRAF ELISA Kits BRAF Proteins
SRC (V-Src Sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) Viral Oncogene Homolog (Avian)): SRC antibodies SRC ELISA Kits SRC Proteins
VTN - Vitronectin: VTN antibodies VTN ELISA Kits VTN Proteins

Interferon mediated Regulation

IFNG (Interferon gamma):

This gene encodes a member of the type II interferon family. The protein encoded is a soluble cytokine with antiviral, immunoregulatory and anti-tumor properties and is a potent activator of macrophages. Mutations in this gene are associated with aplastic anemia.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009].   More...
Antigens in this category:
IRF1 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 1): IRF1 antibodies IRF1 ELISA Kits IRF1 Proteins
IRF5 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 5): IRF5 antibodies IRF5 ELISA Kits IRF5 Proteins
IRF7 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 7): IRF7 antibodies IRF7 ELISA Kits IRF7 Proteins
IFI27 - Interferon, alpha-Inducible Protein 27: IFI27 antibodies IFI27 ELISA Kits IFI27 Proteins
IFNB1 (Interferon, beta 1, Fibroblast): IFNB1 antibodies IFNB1 ELISA Kits IFNB1 Proteins
IFI16 (Interferon, gamma-Inducible Protein 16): IFI16 antibodies IFI16 ELISA Kits IFI16 Proteins
IL1A (Interleukin 1 alpha): IL1A antibodies IL1A ELISA Kits IL1A Proteins
IL1B (Interleukin 1, beta): IL1B antibodies IL1B ELISA Kits IL1B Proteins
IL24 - Interleukin 24: IL24 antibodies IL24 ELISA Kits IL24 Proteins
IL-3 (Interleukin 3): IL-3 antibodies IL-3 ELISA Kits IL-3 Proteins
IL6 - Interleukin 6: IL6 antibodies IL6 ELISA Kits IL6 Proteins
Il6ra - IL6RA: Il6ra antibodies Il6ra ELISA Kits Il6ra Proteins
IL6ST (Interleukin 6 Signal Transducer (Gp130, Oncostatin M Receptor)): IL6ST antibodies IL6ST ELISA Kits IL6ST Proteins
IL8 - Interleukin 8: IL8 antibodies IL8 ELISA Kits IL8 Proteins
IL6R - IL-6 Receptor: IL6R antibodies IL6R ELISA Kits IL6R Proteins