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IHC Antibodies

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Browse all IHC antibodies

Overview of Immunohistochemistry

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) refers to the process of detecting antigens in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. Its widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells such as those found in cancerous tumors and in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue. Visualising an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways. In the most common instance, an antibody is conjugated to an enzyme, such as peroxidase, that can catalyse a colour-producing reaction or tagged to a fluorophore.

Antibodies for IHC

Tissue Preparation

The tissue sample preparation is of crucial importance, because inadequate handling may disrupt tissue structure, cause reduced antibody binding affinity or even prevent binding altogether. The goal is to preserve the tissue in close to life-like conditions while concomitantly preventing autolysis and degradation due to bacterial or fungal growth. To this end, fixatives are used, such as paraformaldehyde-lysin-periodate (PLP) or formalin. The most common fixative is 4%-10% (in some cases up to 40%) formaldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer (in order to stabilize the pH).

For tissue that does not tolerate formaldehyde incubation, an often used alternative is that samples are snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then cut into sections. Tissues incubated with fixatives are embedded in a matrix, e.g. paraffin, or, after they have been dehydrated, in alcohol (isopropanol or ethanol), and then cut into sections. For sensitive tissues the application of a vibratome microtome may be advisable, due to the lower physical stress it produces on the tissues.

Antigen Retrieval

Despite its superior preservation quality, in terms of morphology, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples can lose some or all immunoreactivity due to structural changes of the targeted antigen. The demonstration of antigens, and hence the immunoreactivity, can be improved using various techniques. Mainly, there are two distinct approaches, i.e. heat treatment, the so-called "heat induced epitope retrieval" (HIER), and the "proteolytic induced epitope retrieval" (PIER). In order to apply these techniques tissue-sections have to be deparaffinized and rehydrated first.

HIER works by applying, what is often referred to as retrieval solution. This preheated buffer has varying composition and pH, often consisting of Tris-HCl or citrate. The emerged samples are exposed to heat for varying times (usually between 10-60 minutes) and then slowly cooled. The heating itself may be carried out using an autoclave, waterbath, pressure-cooker or similar appliance.

PIER works by applying digestion enzymes, such as proteinase K, trypsin, pepsin and various other proteinases. Optimal incubation time and concentrations have to be tested. In the final run sample specificities should be optimized. Occasionally it may be required to combine HIER and PIER in order to achieve antigen ?unmasking? following formalin-incubation.

Staining Methodologies

Direct method

In this method a labelled antibody (e.g. with a substrate-chromogen) reacts directly with the antigen in the tissue. The advantage is that only one antibody is needed, hence the application is fast and produces little nonspecific binding. On the other hand, since only one antibody binds one epitope, the signal intensity is low. For applications with small amounts of antigen the signal may be too weak.

Indirect method (two-step)

In order to upscale the low signal intensity of the direct method, the indirect method has been developed. The primary antibody binds to the antigen, followed by a second (labelled) antibody binding the primary. The signal is amplified due to the binding of multiple secondary antibodies to a single primary antibody. Another advantage is that only one labelled antibody needs to be employed for different targets, which may reduce costs. One disadvantage is that nonspecific binding occurs more frequently than with the direct method.

Three-step method

In order to further amplify the signal an additional antibody may be employed that binds to the secondary antibody. This method leads to a third layer of antibodies all of which are labelled. This application is useful for staining of antigens with a limited number of epitopes.

PAP method

Today, the peroxidase anti-peroxidase method is rarely used, but has been popular in pathology laboratories previously. It is an indirect method which depends on a third layer of antibodies, bound to peroxidase, that binds an unconjugated second layer antibody. The peroxidase is not chemically conjugated to the IgG but immunologically bound. That means that the third layer antibody is specific for peroxidase. This leads to a much higher activity of the peroxidase, in turn increasing the assay sensitivity by two to three orders of a magnitude.

(Strept)Avidin-Biotin Complex (ABC) methods

Nowadays, one of the most commonly used method for staining is based on the high affinity that avidin (chicken egg) and streptavidin (Streptomyces avidinii) have for the glycoprotein biotin. The basic principle is that avidin (or streptavidin) reacts with a biotinylated secondary antibody, followed by a horseradish peroxidase reaction.

In some cases catalyzed signal amplification (CSA) is employed. An amplification reagent leads to the aggregation of a large number of biotins that subsequently react with streptavidin-labelled peroxidase. One issue with avidin is its large electrostatic binding, due to its molecular charge. Streptavidin does not have the same propensity, thus reducing the background signal.

Polymeric methods

In short, polymeric methods employ large antibody-bound polymers with the ability to bind a larger number of molecules, typically an average of ten antibodies and approximately 70 enzyme molecules. This setup allows for outstanding amplification of the signal, hence high sensitivity, reduced nonspecific binding, and therefore low background signal. It also allows for staining of two different antigens at the same time.

IHC Antibodies

264,524 results:

RFP Reactivity: Discosoma ELISA, FACS, IF, IHC, IHC (fro), IHC (p), IP, WB Host: Rabbit Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 353 references Independent Validation 1 validation
Catalog No. ABIN129578
$295.00
Free shipping!
100 μL (More quantities available)
Shipping to: United States
Delivery in 1 to 2 Business Days
Antigen: collagen type III alpha 1 chain COL1 Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Cow, Mammalian ELISA, IHC, IP, WB Host: Rabbit Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 62 references Independent Validation 1 validation
Catalog No. ABIN5596819
$670.50
Plus shipping costs $45.00
100 μg (More quantities available)
Shipping to: United States
Delivery in 1 to 2 Business Days
AIF1 Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat IHC (fro), IHC (p), IHC, WB Host: Rabbit Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 13 references Independent Validation 1 validation
Catalog No. ABIN2857032
$509.08
Plus shipping costs $45.00
100 μL
Shipping to: United States
Delivery in 3 to 4 Business Days
CASP8 Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey, Pig, Sheep ELISA, FACS, IF (cc), IF (p), IHC (fro), IHC (p), WB Host: Rabbit Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 15 references Independent Validation 1 validation
Catalog No. ABIN724205
$352.31
Plus shipping costs $45.00
100 μL
Shipping to: United States
Delivery in 4 to 6 Business Days
TNF alpha Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Horse, Rabbit ELISA, IF (p), IHC (fro), IHC (p), WB Host: Rabbit Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 21 references Independent Validation 1 validation
Catalog No. ABIN677318
$352.31
Plus shipping costs $45.00
100 μL
Shipping to: United States
Delivery in 4 to 6 Business Days
Synonym: catenin beta 1 CATNB Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat ChIP, CUT&RUN, ICC, IF, IHC (p), IP, WB Host: Rabbit Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 9 references Independent Validation 1 validation
Catalog No. ABIN2855042
$509.08
Plus shipping costs $45.00
100 μL
Shipping to: United States
Delivery in 3 to 4 Business Days
Abeta Reactivity: Human, Mouse IHC, ELISA, WB Host: Rabbit Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 1 reference Independent Validation 2 validations
Catalog No. ABIN95037
$657.00
Plus shipping costs $45.00 and $20.00 dry ice
100 μg (More quantities available)
Shipping to: United States
Delivery in 1 to 2 Business Days
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Cow ELISA, IF (cc), IF (p), IHC (fro), IHC (p), WB Host: Rabbit Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 5 references Independent Validation 1 validation
Catalog No. ABIN671256
$352.31
Plus shipping costs $45.00
100 μL
Shipping to: United States
Delivery in 4 to 6 Business Days
OCLN Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Pig ELISA, FACS, IF (cc), IF (p), IHC (p), WB Host: Rabbit Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 5 references Independent Validation 1 validation
Catalog No. ABIN687337
$352.31
Plus shipping costs $45.00
100 μL
Shipping to: United States
Delivery in 4 to 6 Business Days
AIF1 Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat ELISA, FACS, IF (cc), IF (p), IHC (fro), IHC (p), WB Host: Rabbit Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 7 references Independent Validation 1 validation
Catalog No. ABIN685477
$352.31
Plus shipping costs $45.00
100 μL
Shipping to: United States
Delivery in 4 to 6 Business Days
  • Type Primary
    • Primary
  • Target
    • Tumor Protein P53 (TP53)
    • Histone 3 (H3)
    • Protein tyrosine Phosphatase, Receptor Type, C (PTPRC)
    • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)
    • V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 1 (AKT1)
    • Chromogranin A (CHGA)
    • Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EPCAM)
    • Keratin 18 (KRT18)
    • CD4
    • Nuclear Factor-kB p65 (NFkBP65)
    • B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2)
    • Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF alpha)
    • Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1)
    • Mucin 1 (MUC1)
    • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)
    • Keratin 8 (KRT8)
    • Platelet/endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (PECAM1)
    • Albumin (ALB)
    • Vimentin (VIM)
    • CD34
    • Jun Proto-Oncogene (JUN)
    • Melan A (MLANA)
    • Insulin (INS)
    • Keratin 19 (KRT19)
    • Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (ErbB2/Her2)
    • CD8a Molecule (CD8A)
    • tau Protein
    • Myc Proto-Oncogene protein (MYC)
    • BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death (BAD)
    • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 70kDa, Polypeptide 1 (RPS6KB1)
    • Heat Shock 60kDa Protein 1 (Chaperonin) (HSPD1)
    • alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
    • Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1)
    • CD44
    • Keratin 7 (KRT7)
    • CD5
    • Heat Shock 27kDa Protein 1 (HSPB1)
    • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) (CDKN1A)
    • SMAD, Mothers Against DPP Homolog 3 (SMAD3)
    • Caspase 3 (CASP3)
    • Synuclein, alpha (SNCA)
    • Mast/stem Cell Growth Factor Receptor (KIT)
    • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1) (CDKN1B)
    • Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70)
    • V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1 (RAF1)
    • Von Willebrand Factor (VWF)
    • CD3 epsilon (CD3E)
    • Amyloid beta (A4) Precursor Protein (APP)
    • C-Abl Oncogene 1, Non-Receptor tyrosine Kinase (ABL1)
    • Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF2)
    Please use search to find more...
  • Application Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)), Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections) (IHC (fro)), Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed Sections) (IHC (f)), Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (fp)), Immunohistochemistry (Zinc-fixed Sections) (IHC (zinc)), Immunohistochemistry (Paraformaldehyde) (IHC (pfa)), Immunohistochemistry (Free Floating) (IHC (ff)), Immunohistochemistry (Whole Mount) (IHC (wm)), Immunohistochemistry (Resin Sections) (IHC (rs)), Immunohistochemistry (Fixed) (IHC (fx)), Immunohistochemistry (Acetone-fixed) (IHC (af))
    • Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
    • Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections) (IHC (fro))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed Sections) (IHC (f))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (fp))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Zinc-fixed Sections) (IHC (zinc))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Paraformaldehyde) (IHC (pfa))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Free Floating) (IHC (ff))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Whole Mount) (IHC (wm))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Resin Sections) (IHC (rs))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Fixed) (IHC (fx))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Acetone-fixed) (IHC (af))
    • Western Blotting (WB)
    • ELISA
    • Immunofluorescence (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IF (p))
    • Flow Cytometry (FACS)
    • Immunofluorescence (Cultured Cells) (IF (cc))
    • Immunofluorescence (IF)
    • Immunoprecipitation (IP)
    • Immunocytochemistry (ICC)
    • Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)
    • Immunofluorescence (fixed cells) (IF/ICC)
    • Dot Blot (DB)
    • Immunochromatography (IC)
    • Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
    • Functional Studies (Func)
    • Neutralization (Neut)
    • Immunostaining (ISt)
    • Coating (Coat)
    • Fluorescence Microscopy (FM)
    • Staining Methods (StM)
    • Immunodiffusion (ID)
    • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)
    • Immunoassay (IA)
    • Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA)
    • Confocal Microscopy (CM)
    • Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP)
    • ELISA (Detection)
    • Antibody Array (AA)
    • Lateral Flow (LF)
    • Blocking Antibody (Inhibition)
    • RNA Interference (RNAi)
    • Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)
    • ChIP DNA-Sequencing (ChIP-seq)
    • ELISA (Capture)
    • Cytotoxicity Test (CyTox)
    • Cellular Assay (CA)
    • Blocking Reagent (BR)
    • Live Cell Imaging (LCI)
    • ELISpot
    • Blocking Peptide (BP)
    • Immunoelectron Microscopy (IEM)
    • FLISA
    • Luminex Assay (LMNX)
    • Gel Shift (GS)
    • Protein Assay (PrA)
    • Haemagglutination (H)
  • Reactivity
    • Human
    • Mouse
    • Rat
    • Cow
    • Dog
    • Monkey
    • Pig
    • Rabbit
    • Horse
    • Guinea Pig
    • Chicken
    • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    • Hamster
    • Sheep
    • Xenopus laevis
    • Bat
    • Goat
    • Cat
    • Mammalian
    • Drosophila melanogaster
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Fish
    • Non-Human Primate
    • Frog
    • Chimpanzee
    • Rhesus Monkey
    • Cynomolgus
    • Plant
    • Baboon
    • Gorilla
    • Virus
    • Chemical
    • Gibbon
    • Primate
    • Various Species
    • E. coli
    • All Species
    • Bacteria
    • Ferret
    • Insect
    • Macaque
    • C. elegans
    • Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
    • Marmoset
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    • Avian
    • Orang-Utan
    • Amphibian
    • Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16)
    • Gerbil
    Please use search to find more...
  • Cited in publications
  • Images available
  • Independent Validation
  • Preservative free only
  • Detection Method
    • Fluorometric
  • Host
    • Rabbit
    • Mouse
    • Goat
    • Rat
    • Sheep
    • Guinea Pig
    • Chicken
    • Hamster
    • Armenian Hamster
    • Human
    • Chicken eggs
    • Synthetic
    • Horse
    • Pig
    • Golden Syrian Hamster
    • Chicken egg
    • Rabbit/Mouse Cocktail
    • Various Hosts
  • Clonality
    • Polyclonal
    • Monoclonal
    • Chimeric
  • Clone
    • C1
    • C2
    • C3
    • C5
    • PAb
    • C4
    • 2F6
    • D4
    • 1A4
    • 9E10
    • 1D4
    • 2F11
    • 145-2C11
    • 1F8
    • MEL-14
    • 5A5
    • 3F8
    • 2C1
    • 3G8
    • C6
    • 2D2
    • 4C2
    • RB6-8C5
    • AE-1
    • 1F6
    • 53-6-7
    • 3G4
    • E11
    • UCHT1
    • 3A4
    • C11
    • 2C4
    • 8C8
    • LK1
    • PY20
    • 1C7
    • 1D6
    • 2A4
    • 3B5
    • BU69
    • PC10
    • 1A6
    • 2D10
    • 2G4
    • 3D3
    • 3H9
    • 1A1
    • 30-H12
    • QBEnd-10
    • 1F3
    Please use search to find more...
  • Binding Specificity
    • C-Term
    • N-Term
    • Internal Region
    • Center
    • AA 1-30
    • Middle Region
    • AA 1-100
    • AA 101-200
    • AA 51-150
    • Extracellular Domain
    • AA 201-300
    • AA 151-250
    • AA 21-120
    • Cytoplasmic Domain
    • AA 301-400
    • full length
    • AA 251-350
    • AA 1-50
    • AA 31-130
    • AA 401-500
    • AA 351-450
    • Intracellular
    • AA 501-600
    • AA 1-80
    • AA 121-220
    • AA 451-550
    • AA 1-300
    • Extracellular
    • AA 131-230
    • AA 1-200
    • AA 50-100
    • 3rd Cytoplasmic Domain
    • AA 81-180
    • AA 10-90
    • AA 231-330
    • AA 100-150
    • AA 41-140
    • AA 30-110
    • AA 221-320
    • AA 61-160
    • BH3 Domain
    • AA 601-700
    • AA 1-250
    • AA 150-200
    • AA 40-120
    • 2nd Extracellular Domain
    • AA 161-260
    • AA 701-800
    • AA 551-650
    • AA 16-46
    Please use search to find more...
  • Conjugate
    • Un-conjugated
    • Biotin
    • HRP
    • FITC
    • PE
    • APC
    • Alkaline Phosphatase (AP)
    • CF®488A
    • CF405M
    • CF®405S
    • CF®543
    • CF®555
    • CF®568
    • CF®594
    • CF®640R
    • CF®647
    • CF®660R
    • CF®680
    • CF®680R
    • CF®770
    • PerCP
    • Atto 594
    • Atto 488
    • Atto 390
    • SPRD
    • PE-Cy5
    • PE-Cy7
    • Cy5
    • Cy7,PE
    • PE,Cy5
    • Cy5.5,PE
    • APC-Cy7
    • PE-Cy5.5
    • DyLight 650
    • PE-DyLight 594
    • Cy3
    • Streptavidin
    • DyLight 488
    • DyLight 549
    • Atto 633
    • His-Myc tag
    • TRITC
    • Atto 550
    • CF-Blue
    • PE,Texas Red (TR)
    • Peroxidase (POD)
    • Rhodamine
    • GST tag
    • His tag
    • Alexa Fluor 488
    Please use search to find more...
  • Isotype
    • IgG
    • IgG1
    • Ig Fraction
    • IgG1 kappa
    • IgG2a
    • IgG2a kappa
    • IgG2b
    • IgG2b kappa
    • IgG kappa
    • IgM
    • IgY
    • IgG2
    • IgG3
    • IgM kappa
    • IgG3 kappa
    • IgG2c kappa
    • IgG2b lambda
    • IgG Mix lambda
    • IgG2a lambda
    • kappa
    • IgG lambda
    • IgG2c
    • IgG1 lambda
    • IgG1/IgG2b
    • IgG2 kappa
    • IgG4 kappa
    • Ig kappa
    • Cocktail
    • IgG3 lambda
    • Ig Mix
    • IgA
    • IgA kappa
    • IgG1a
    • IgE
    • IgG4 lambda
    • IgE kappa
    • IgG IgA IgM Mix
    • IgG Mix
    • IgG Mix kappa
    • IgG1 lamda
    • IgG2 lambda
  • Protein Type
    • Recombinant Antibody
  • Format
    • Liquid
    • Lyophilized
    • Frozen
    • Concentrated
  • Biological Activity
    • Active
  • Fragment
    • scFv fragment
    • F(ab')2 fragment
    • Fab fragment
  • Grade
    • Verified
    • KO Validated
    • GMP Grade
    • In vivo Grade
    • ChIP Grade
    • ChIP-seq Grade
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