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Spatial Biology

Spatial biology is a multidisciplinary field that focuses on studying the organization, relationships, and functions of biological entities within their spatial context. It aims at understanding how the spatial organization of cells, tissues, and organs influences their behavior, function, and overall biological processes.

By integrating spatial information into biological studies, spatial biology offers a more holistic and comprehensive understanding of how biological systems operate. It provides insights into the complex interplay between cellular and molecular components and how they contribute to the overall function and behavior of living organisms.

antibodies-online is ready to support your spatial omics analysis. We offer a variety of thoroughly tested antibodies suitable for spatial proteomics experiments.

Cortactin antibody ABIN2854674
Spatial analysis of murine frozen coronal olfactory bulb section with cortactin antibody ABIN2854674. (green) and GRIN2B antibody ABIN5611338 (red). Validation image provided by Akoya Biosciences.

Spatial Biology Antibodies and Custom Services

antibodies-online offers a selection of high-quality antibodies suitable for spatial profiling in multiplex IHC, multiplex IF, DNA microscopy or spatial CUT&Tag experiments.

Multiplex IHC Antibodies for Spatial Biology

These mIHC antibodies have been thoroughly tested through our Independent Validation Initiative (IVI) for the spatial analysis of tissue samples (e.g. FFPE).

Cat. No.

Application ELISA, IF, Crys, SPR, mIHC
Cat. No. ABIN6952546
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat
Application WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC, FACS, mIHC
Cat. No. ABIN5542390
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Rat
Application WB, IHC, IF, ICC, AA, mIHC
Cat. No. ABIN361694
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Rat
Application WB, IHC, mIHC
Cat. No. ABIN1027710
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human, Mouse
Application WB, IHC (p), mIHC
Cat. No. ABIN2855225
Datasheet Datasheet

Multiplex Immunofluorescence (mIF) Antibodies for Spatial Biology

We also offer a selection of high-qualiy antibodies suitable for spatial analysis in multiplex immunofluorescence experiments. Immune profiling with multiplex immunofluorescence offers the unique advantage of preserving the architectural features of the tissue of interest to reveal the spatial relationships between tumor cells and immune cells for example.

Cat. No.
Reactivity Aequorea aequorea, Aequorea victoria
Application IF, ICC, FACS, DNA Mic, MA, mIF
Cat. No. ABIN7272887
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human
Application WB, IP, ICC, IF (p), IHC (fp), mIF
Cat. No. ABIN7455209
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human
Application FACS, WB, IP, IHC (fp), mIF
Cat. No. ABIN7455077
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human
Application FACS, IHC, WB, IF (p), mIF
Cat. No. ABIN7449561
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human
Application FACS, WB, IHC, IF (p), mIF
Cat. No. ABIN7449560
Datasheet Datasheet

DNA Microscopy Antibodies

Antibodies tagged with short DNA sequences are a key component for DNA microscopy experiments. The antibodies listed below have been validated for this purpose. Custom oligo conjugation services are available as well.

Cat. No.
Reactivity Human, Mouse, Rat
Application WB, IF, IHC (p), FACS, DNA Mic
Cat. No. ABIN658990
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human, Monkey
Application WB, FACS, ELISA, IHC, DNA Mic
Cat. No. ABIN969531
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human
Application FACS, IHC, IF, StM, DNA Mic
Cat. No. ABIN6941185
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Cynomolgus, Human, Rhesus Monkey
Application FACS, DNA Mic
Cat. No. ABIN2704265
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human
Application FACS, DNA Mic
Cat. No. ABIN2704318
Datasheet Datasheet

Spatial CUT&Tag Antibodies

We have a selection of antibodies suitable for Spatial CUT&Tag and MERFISH available. Discover our selection below.

Carrier-free Antibodies for Spatial Biology

Carrier-free antibodies are essential for multiplex assays because they enable the use of custom conjugates like specific fluorophores or DNA oligonucleotides depending on experimental design. Discover our selection below.

Benefit from the combined expertise of Rockland and antibodies-online: Rockland enabling biomolecule detection, characterization and analysis since 1962. 60,000 square feet manufacturing facility produce high-quality antibodies, reagents and custom services for your next project. Learn more down below.

Custom Monoclonal Antibodies

Our custom antibody production services team can generate monoclonal antibodies in a range of species including mouse, rat, and Armenian hamster.

Antibody Oligonucleotide Conjugation

Discover our high-quality, antibody-oligo conjugates (AOC). Resulting conjugates are chemically stable, and suitable for use in in vitro assays, in vivo assays, and immunization studies.

Custom Recombinant Antibodies

Develop a renewable and scalable source of recombinant antibodies.

Spatial Biology defined

What is Spatial Biology?

Spatial biology (also called Spacial Omics) is a multidisciplinary field that combines biology, genetics, genomics, and imaging techniques to study the spatial organization and interactions of biological molecules, cells, and tissues within their native environments. It focuses on understanding how the spatial arrangement of biological components influences their functions, behavior, and overall biological processes.

Traditionally, biology has primarily focused on studying biological systems by analyzing their components in isolation or using bulk measurements. However, spatial biology recognizes that biological processes occur within the context of complex spatial relationships. By examining the spatial organization of molecules, cells, and tissues, researchers can gain valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms that drive biological phenomena.

Technological advancements, such as high-resolution imaging techniques, have enabled researchers to visualize and analyze biological structures and interactions at unprecedented levels of detail. Spatial biology leverages these techniques to map the distribution of molecules, proteins, RNAs, and other biomolecules within cells and tissues. It provides a deeper understanding of how molecules and cells interact spatially to form complex biological networks and systems.

Spatial biology has numerous applications across various fields of biology, including developmental biology, neuroscience, cancer research, immunology, and microbiology. It can help uncover the spatial patterns of gene expression, identify cell types and their interactions within tissues, investigate cellular signaling pathways, study tissue architecture, and explore the spatial dynamics of infectious diseases, among other areas.

The integration of spatial information with molecular and genomic data has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of biological systems, providing new insights into health, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets. Spatial biology is an emerging and rapidly evolving field, and ongoing research and technological developments continue to push its boundaries and impact our understanding of complex biological systems.

How to select Antibodies for Spatial Biology Applications?

Choosing the right antibodies is crucial for spatial biology applications to ensure accurate and reliable detection of target molecules within the tissue or cellular context. Here are some considerations for selecting antibodies for spatial biology studies:

  • Specificity: It is essential to choose antibodies that are highly specific to the target molecule of interest. Antibodies with low cross-reactivity minimize the chances of false-positive or nonspecific staining, ensuring accurate detection and interpretation of the spatial distribution of the target molecule.
  • Validation: Select antibodies that have been thoroughly validated for their performance in the intended application. Look for antibodies that have been tested in spatial biology techniques such as spatial transcriptomics, spatial proteomics, or imaging-based methods. Consider using antibodies with published data or references supporting their specificity and performance in spatial applications.
  • Host species and isotype: If using indirect detection methods, such as immunofluorescence or chromogenic staining, select primary antibodies that originate from a different host species than the secondary detection reagents. This minimizes the potential for cross-reactivity and background staining. Additionally, consider using primary antibodies of different isotypes if multiple primary antibodies from the same host species are necessary.
  • Multiplexing capability: If you intend to perform multiplexed staining to detect multiple targets simultaneously, choose antibodies that are compatible with multiplexing techniques. Ensure that the antibodies have distinct emission spectra or can be distinguished using appropriate imaging or detection methods.

What is the Difference Between Spatial Biology & Single Cell Analysis?

Single-cell analysis and spatial biology are closely related concepts that complement each other in the study of biological systems. Single-cell analysis focuses on characterizing and studying individual cells at the molecular level, allowing researchers to understand the heterogeneity and diversity within a population of cells. It involves techniques such as single-cell sequencing, mass cytometry, and single-cell imaging, which enable the measurement of gene expression, protein abundance, and other molecular features in individual cells.

Spatial biology, on the other hand, focuses on the spatial organization and interactions of biological molecules, cells, and tissues within their native environments. It aims to understand how the spatial arrangement of biological components influences their functions and behavior. Spatial biology techniques involve high-resolution imaging methods, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), spatial transcriptomics, and spatial proteomics, which enable the visualization and mapping of molecules and cells in their spatial context.

The integration of single-cell analysis and spatial biology allows researchers to gain a more comprehensive understanding of biological systems. By combining single-cell sequencing data with spatial information, researchers can not only identify different cell types and their gene expression profiles but also determine their spatial distribution within tissues. This integration provides insights into the spatial relationships between cells, their functional specialization, and their interactions with neighboring cells.

Furthermore, spatially resolved transcriptomics techniques, such as spatial transcriptomics and spatially resolved RNA sequencing, enable the simultaneous measurement of gene expression and spatial information within tissues. These techniques provide a spatially resolved gene expression atlas, allowing researchers to identify cell types, spatially regulated gene expression patterns, and cell-cell interactions within complex tissues.

By combining single-cell analysis with spatial biology, researchers can unravel the heterogeneity and spatial organization of cells within tissues, elucidate cellular interactions and communication networks, and gain a deeper understanding of tissue development, disease progression, and response to therapies. This integration has the potential to advance our knowledge of biological systems and contribute to fields such as developmental biology, cancer research, neurobiology, immunology, and more.

What is DNA Microscopy?

DNA microscopy is a technique combining molecular biology and microscopy that has its roots in studying DNA organization. The underlying methodology can be extended to visualize a variety of targets at high resolution while maintaining spatial information. Compared to super-resolution imaging, single-cell proteomics with higher multiplexing levels are possible in DNA microscopy because of the use of antibodies tagged with short DNA sequences. These Antibody Oligonucleotide Conjugates (AOC) are used to bind complementary strands for detection.

In DNA-PAINT (Point Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography), imager strands labeled with a fluorescent dye rapidly bind and unbind from the AOC docking strands. A fluorescent signal is emitted during each binding event (blink). Because more photons are emitted per fluorophore, localization of the target is more precise. Longer imaging exposure is possible because bleaching is not an issue. This allows molecular resolution.

Molecular pixelation is a novel method that employs barcoded AOCs on fixed cells. The DNA barcodes contain information about each molecule, the targeted antigen, and spatial proximity. Next-generation sequencing readout enables multiplexed quantitative analysis of protein abundance on the single-cell level. Location-specific barcodes allow analysis of spatial clustering (polarization) of various proteins in one experiment.

What are Spatial CUT&Tag and MERFISH?

Spatial CUT&Tag combines the characterization of genome-wide protein binding patterns to chromatin with microfluidics-assisted barcoding to retain spatial information of the sample, followed by high-throughput sequencing. In CUT&Tag (Cleavage Under Targets & Tagmentation), an antibody against a protein of interest guides a protein A and/or G Tn5 transposase fusion protein to a defined genomic region for chromatin fragmentation. Amplification and sequencing primers are attached to the transposition products which are subsequently sequenced and mapped. Spatial CUT&Tag includes two labeling steps using microchannel-guided flow prior to sequencing to retain the in situ localization information of the chromatin fragments.

MERFISH (Multiplexed Error Robust Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) also employs antibodies to guide a hyperactive Tn5 fusion protein towards epigenetic marks. However, generated DNA fragments are then transcribed into RNA which is then detected via fluorescence or can be sequenced.


  1. Park, Kim, Lewy, Rice, Elemento, Rendeiro, Mason: "Spatial omics technologies at multimodal and single cell/subcellular level." in: Genome biology, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 256, (2022) (PubMed).
  2. Schnitzbauer, Strauss, Schlichthaerle, Schueder, Jungmann: "Super-resolution microscopy with DNA-PAINT." in: Nature protocols, Vol. 12, Issue 6, pp. 1198-1228, (2017) (PubMed).
  3. Deng, Bartosovic, Kukanja, Zhang, Liu, Su, Enninful, Bai, Castelo-Branco, Fan: "Spatial-CUT&Tag: Spatially resolved chromatin modification profiling at the cellular level." in: Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 375, Issue 6581, pp. 681-686, (2022) (PubMed).
  4. Williams, Lee, Asatsuma, Vento-Tormo, Haque: "An introduction to spatial transcriptomics for biomedical research." in: Genome medicine, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 68, (2022) (PubMed).
  5. Lu, Ang, Zhuang: "Spatially resolved epigenomic profiling of single cells in complex tissues." in: Cell, Vol. 185, Issue 23, pp. 4448-4464.e17, (2022) (PubMed).
  6. Saviano, Henderson, Baumert: "Single-cell genomics and spatial transcriptomics: Discovery of novel cell states and cellular interactions in liver physiology and disease biology." in: Journal of hepatology, Vol. 73, Issue 5, pp. 1219-1230, (2021) (PubMed).
Julian Pampel
Julian Pampel, BSc
Content Manager at

Creative mind of antibodies-online with a keen eye for details. Proficient in the field of life-science with a passion for plant biotechnology and clinical study design. Responsible for illustrated and written content at antibodies-online as well as supervision of the antibodies-online scholarship program.

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